爱迪生人品极差 道德及其败坏

第3集 – 英国与西班牙争夺新大陆

第1集 – 《建国史话》系列节目概况

在一个多世纪的时间里,托马斯·阿尔瓦·爱迪生(1847年——1931年)在世界各地都享有盛誉,被人称为“发明大王”。但随着时间的流逝、资料的解密,逐渐向人们还原了这个“伟人”原本的丑恶嘴脸——他沽名钓誉,经常独霸集体智慧的成果;他投机取巧,改善他人的发明后便迅速申报专利;更为可怕的是,他为了一己之利,疯狂地诽谤和打击同时代的天才发明家特斯拉,并借他人之力将美国教科书上特斯拉的名字全部删掉……

VOICE ONE:

VOICE ONE:

势利专横,打压贤才

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION — American history in VOA Special
English. I’m Shirley Griffith.

虽然爱迪生只有小学三年级的文凭,但他精明灵光,颇具商业头脑。

VOICE TWO:

VOICE TWO:

爱迪生最为得意的一笔生意和“发明”便是日后让他享有盛誉的“电灯泡”。1874年,两个加拿大人在玻璃泡中充入氮气,以通电的炭杆发光,并申请了专利。但是他们却没财力继续发展,便把专利卖给了爱迪生。爱迪生购下后,效仿英国人亨利·戈培尔使用炭化的竹丝,成功将灯泡照明的时间维持至1200小时,并立刻在英美两国申请了专利,但是遭到戈培尔的控告。爱迪生败诉后,经过多年的官司和砸钱,方才取得炭丝白炽灯的专利权,并自诩为发明“灯泡”的第一人。

And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States. Today, we tell
about the first permanent English settlements in North America.

The Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.

此后爱迪生通过同样的方式“发明”了直流电,并创办了直流电气能源公司,高价出售电能。他还高薪聘请了一批卓越的科学家和资深工程师,让他们进行研究,然后将集体的智慧结晶以自己的名义申请专利,转化为巨额商业利润。他的生意如火如荼,从美国一直延伸到了大洋彼岸的欧洲。

VOICE ONE:

The Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.

此时,在遥远的南斯拉夫,有一位名叫尼古拉·特斯拉的青年听说了爱迪生的“伟大发明”,激动不已。特斯拉从小聪慧过人,很快就看出爱迪生直流电输送的死穴——因为在电路上的损耗过大,必须每隔一公里便建设一套发电机组,导致电价极贵,成为一般人无法承担的奢侈品。于是,他想创造一种可以远距离输送电能的方式。

England was the first country to compete with Spain for claims in the
New World, although it was too weak to do this openly at first. But
Queen Elizabeth of England supported such explorations as early as the
fifteen seventies.

And I’m Steve Ember. Today history repeats itself. We start our series
over again. The last time we were at the beginning was in February of
two thousand three.

1884年6月,特斯拉风尘仆仆地来到纽约,激动地告诉爱迪生他的设想。但特斯拉万万没有想到的是,爱迪生一口拒绝了。因为爱迪生庞大的商业体系全部建立在直流电的基础之上,换成其他输电方式,就是要他破产!

英国是第一个跟西班牙争夺新大陆的欧洲国家。伊丽莎白女王从十六世纪七十年代就开始支持对新大陆的探险,不过,由于英国的力量比较薄弱,所以这种争夺最初并不是正面公开的。

VOICE ONE:

但精明的爱迪生不会放过这样一个天赋绝顶的人才,他将特斯拉招进了他的实验室,成为最赚钱的一匹无名的“磨坊瞎骡子”。1919年,爱迪生把马达和发动机的改进工作交给了特斯拉,并许诺如果改进成功,他将获得5万美元的酬劳,相当于现在的100万美元!

Sir Humphrey Gilbert led the first English settlement efforts. He did
not establish any lasting settlement. He died as he was returning to
England.

THE MAKING OF A NATION has a loyal following. In fact, listener research
finds it the most popular weekly program in VOA Special English.

那时,特斯拉的工资极低,常常连房租也交不起,爱迪生的天价酬劳如天降甘露。特斯拉全力以赴,从早上工作到第二天凌晨,每天只睡两三个小时。经过不眠不休的奋战,特斯拉终于为爱迪生发明了24项与直流电发电机相关的设计,全部都能投入大规模工业生产!

英国的吉尔伯特爵士领导了第一次在新大陆定居的努力,但是没能建立长期定居点,他本人也在返回英国的途中去世。

It started in May of nineteen sixty-nine. Some people can remember when
THE MAKING OF A NATION was on the radio two times a week. People who
grew up listening to it are old enough now to listen with their own
children, or even their grandchildren.

但几天后,特斯拉却发现爱迪生办公室上放着一叠文件——直流电发电机专利书,24项新专利的所有者全部都是爱迪生!这是怎么回事?特斯拉脑子里乱成一团。

Gilbert’s half brother Sir Walter Raleigh continued his work. Raleigh
sent a number of ships to explore the east coast of North America. He
called the land Virginia to honor England’s unmarried Queen Elizabeth.

The series tells a story. You can think of it not just as a series of
programs about the history of America and its people, but a series of
lessons. The subjects include exploration, revolution, civil war, social
and political change, the rise of industry and modern technology, and
more.

深夜,爱迪生终于回来了。特斯拉赶紧冲上去问原因。爱迪生解释:“为公司工作,专利当然归公司所有,这有什么好奇怪的?”当特斯拉问道5万美元的报酬时,爱迪生竟然耸了耸肩膀,笑道:“哈哈,您真是不懂我们的美式幽默,特斯拉先生!”特斯拉的脸顿时变得惨白。

吉尔伯特的兄弟雷利爵士继续努力,派遣多艘船只到北美东海岸探险,他把登陆的地方命名为Virginia维吉尼亚,纪念英国终身未婚的伊丽莎白女王。

建国史话讲述了一个关于美国历史和人民的故事,从探索新大陆,到独立战争、南北战争、再到社会政治变迁,以及工业和现代科技的兴起。

第二天,特斯拉再次找到爱迪生,要求将自己的周薪提高到25美元,同样遭到了拒绝。特斯拉再也无法忍受爱迪生卑鄙小气的品格,他决绝地离去。这让爱迪生颇为担心,因为他知道特斯拉智商超群,而且极其固执,早晚会成为一个强大的竞争对手!

In fifteen eighty-five, about one-hundred men settled on Roanoke Island,
off the coast of the present day state of North Carolina. These settlers
returned to England a year later. Another group went to Roanoke the next
year. This group included a number of women and children. But the supply
ships Raleigh sent to the colony failed to arrive. When help got there
in fifteen-ninety, none of the settlers could be found.

VOICE TWO:

于是,爱迪生处处打压特斯拉,诋毁他人品。这使得特斯拉长期找不到工作,最后为了糊口,他不得不靠体力劳动谋生。讽刺的是,工作竟然是为爱迪生的公司挖电缆沟渠!

1585年,大约100名男子在今天美国北卡罗来纳州沿海的罗厄诺克岛上定居下来。这些人一年后返回英国,另外一群人次年又前往罗厄诺克岛,这次来的人里多了妇女和儿童。然而,雷利爵士派来的供给船迟迟不到,1590年救援物资终于抵达的时候,一个定居者都找不到了。

We ended last week at program number two hundred thirty-eight. The
subject was the presidential election of two thousand four. As time adds
to the story, we add new programs to the series.

为达目的,不择手段

History experts still are not sure what happened. Some research suggests
that at least some of the settlers became part of the Indian tribe that
lived in the area.

In a sense, THE MAKING OF A NATION is a living history. Yet some of the
announcers are no longer even alive after all these years.

特斯拉没有在爱迪生的打击下自暴自弃,反而,即便在挥汗如雨地挖土时,也默默地在脑中计算着各种公式。一年后,他设计出一种独特的输电方式——交流电,以及一整套相关的设备,以此说服投资人摩根,开设了自己的公司。

历史学家至今不能确定到底发生了什么事情。有研究显示,定居者中至少有一部分人加入了当地的印第安人部落。

Here and there, too, the language may sound a little dated. For example,
some of the programs call black people Negroes. The use of that term may
be historically correct, but today the socially accepted name is
African-American.

特斯拉的公司成立后,爱迪生狂躁不安,特斯拉这不是明摆着跟自己抢市场吗?狂怒的爱迪生失去了科学家应有的宽容品质,他决定对特斯拉进行攻击,绝不留情!

VOICE TWO:

Technology has also changed. Today THE MAKING OF A NATION is not just on
radio but also on the Internet. At www.unsv.com, you can download MP3
files and transcripts. That way you can listen anytime or anyplace —
and read along. The site also includes archives, in case you ever miss a
program.

1888年5月,特斯拉首次向世人展示了他的交流电电动机,它既简单又灵便,解决了长途送电的问题,极大地降低了用电的费用,深受市民喜爱。爱迪生公司的直流电迅速失去优势,许多技术人员和销售人员离开了他,加入特斯拉。

One reason for the delay in getting supplies to Roanoke was the attack
of the Spanish Navy against England in fifteen eighty-eight. King
Phillip of Spain had decided to invade England. But the small English
ships combined with a fierce storm defeated the huge Spanish fleet. As a
result, Spain was no longer able to block English exploration.

VOICE ONE:

爱迪生气急败坏,他绞尽脑汁,突然意识到由于人们对电的认识很少,再加上由于用电引发的火灾比较频繁,常常造成混乱,人们对电普遍怀有一种恐惧情绪,于是他决定从人们对电的恐慌情绪着手,摧毁特斯拉。

前往罗厄诺克岛的供给船延误航程,主要是因为英国1588年遭到了西班牙海军的攻击。西班牙的菲利普国王决定入侵英国,但是英国舰只的抵抗,外加强烈风暴的影响,使西班牙的进攻没有得逞。西班牙从此再也无法阻挡英国的海上探险了。

So how was the nation made? Why did loyal citizens rebel against one
nation and start their own, with different laws? THE MAKING OF A NATION
answers these and other questions about American history.

他亲自撰写了一本名为《当心》的小册子,还在《北美周刊》发表了一篇题为《电灯之危险》的文章,把交流电说得极其恐怖,但市民们仍然将信将疑。

England discovered that supporting colonies so far away was extremely
costly. So Queen Elizabeth took no more action to do this. It was not
until after her death in sixteen-oh-three that England began serious
efforts to start colonies in America.

We tell the story of how a group of farmers, businessmen and lawyers
wrote a document they called the Constitution of the United States. On
September seventeenth, seventeen eighty-seven, delegates to the
Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia met one last time to sign it.

为了进一步让市民直观地感受到交流电的危险,爱迪生决定利用“死亡表演”“教育”民众。他雇佣小学生们到街上抓小猫小狗等牲畜,残忍地把他们置于交流电下电死。最可怕的是处决大象。被电击的大象浑身冒着黑烟,倒地时激起一阵灰尘,大地都在颤抖,仿佛引起了地震。观众吓得惊叫连连,面如土色。爱迪生的雇员趁机宣传:“交流电可以杀死所有人,无论块头有多大!”

但是英国发现,要供养如此遥远的殖民地,花销实在太大。因此,伊丽莎白女王停止了向新大陆的殖民努力。直到她1603年去世后,英国才开始认真地在美洲大陆上建立殖民地。

我们要介绍美国独立战争的前因后果,讲述一群农民、商人和律师是如何拟定美国宪法,以及1787年9月17号宪法大会代表在费城签署宪法的故事。

为了造成对比效果,爱迪生公司的雇员们用1000伏直流电电击猫、狗等动物,结果它们仍然活着;接着再用350伏交流电电击,它们被一一电死。爱迪生的宣传在市民中引起了巨大的恐慌。为了加强效果,爱迪生还买通纽约州监狱的官员,让他们将绞刑改为电刑,并邀请当地市民和媒体实时观看过程。首次接受电刑的犯人是一个叫威廉的年轻人。连续三次恐怖的通电,让威廉以极其恐怖的方式死去:“背部被烧成了炭,发出一股恶臭。脑袋的血凝结成了黑块。”

VOICE ONE:

We explain why that document is still extremely important today — and
not just to Americans. Other governments have used it as a guide to
creating a modern democracy.

现场的人个个噤若寒蝉,交流电从此变成了死神的同义词。特斯拉及其公司成为众矢之的,声誉一落千丈。

In sixteen-oh-six, the new English King, James the First, gave two
business groups permission to establish colonies in Virginia, the area
claimed by England. Companies were organized to carry out the move.

我们要解释美国宪法为什么至今依旧十分重要,成为很多国家建设现代民主的样本。

幸运的是,爱迪生接二连三的攻击并没有整垮特斯拉。特斯拉发挥才能,制造出世界上第一艘无线电遥控船,发明了X光摄影技术、收音机、雷达、传真机、真空管、霓虹灯管等。他又迎来了柳暗花明的时刻,政要、富商、名媛,甚至作家都成为了他的好朋友。与此同时,爱迪生公司却由于经营不善陷入困境。1892年,爱迪生不得不联合托马斯·休斯顿和其他公司成立了通用电气公司。

1606年,英国的新国王詹姆斯一世批准两家公司在维吉尼亚建立殖民地。

VOICE TWO:

背后使刀,令人不齿

The London Company sent one hundred settlers to Virginia in
sixteen-oh-six. The group landed there in May, sixteen-oh-seven and
founded Jamestown. It was the first permanent English colony in the new
world.

U.S. Constitution

1893年,芝加哥举办首届世界博览会。主办方决定采用最新的科技成果电灯来照明,特斯拉的西屋公司竞标成功。结果一出,爱迪生当场骂道:“我不卖给你们电灯,看拿什么照明!”

伦敦公司1606年向维吉尼亚送去了100名定居者,这些人1607年五月抵达,后来创建了英国在新大陆的第一个永久性殖民地詹姆斯镇。

U.S. Constitution

但特斯拉并不会因此而屈服,他号召全体员工加班加点赶制灯泡,终于在最后一刻完工。1893年5月1日,十万观众涌进会场。夜幕降临后,美国总统按下按钮,9万多盏灯泡、灯管瞬间点亮,将会场照耀得如同白昼,令在场的观众目眩神迷。他们啧啧称赞,对交流电的恐慌情绪一扫而空。

The colony seemed about to fail from the start. The settlers did not
plant their crops in time so they soon had no food. Their leaders lacked
the farming and building skills needed to survive on the land. More than
half the settlers died during the first winter.

We explore why the writers of the Constitution included guarantees of
freedom of speech and religion, and the right to a fair and public
trial.

随后,特斯拉进行了一场别开生面的电力魔术表演。万众瞩目中,他用双手接通交流电线,让电流通过自己的身体,点亮了电灯。他浑身冒着闪亮的火花,面带微笑,安然无恙,所有的人都惊呆了。这位科学奇才充分证明了电是能够被人类控制的,而不是脱缰的恶魔!

然而,詹姆斯镇的定居者出师不利,因为没有及时播种,所以没过多久粮食就吃完了。他们又缺乏农耕和建筑技能,第一个冬天下来,詹姆斯镇的居民死亡过半。

我们要分析美国宪法的起草者为什么要把言论自由、宗教自由和接受公开公正审判的权利写进宪法里。

特斯拉在博览会上的表演给公众留下了难以磨灭的印象,笼罩在他公司头顶的阴霾终于一扫而空!此时的爱迪生大势已去,通用电气公司的业务正在被特斯拉鲸吞蚕食。走向穷途末路的他花掉几乎所有的财富,买通了特斯拉的助手,并通过各种方式接近特斯拉的老板——美国最著名的政商界大亨:约翰·摩根。

VOICE TWO:

We also talk about the reasons for the American Revolution. One of the
most important was the idea that citizens of a country should have a
voice in its decisions.

不久,爱迪生得到了一个消息——特斯拉正在试图利用空气、阳光、水等制造电能,并打算放弃交流电的专利使用费,供公众免费使用。爱迪生灵机一动,如果特斯拉真的放弃专利费这棵摇钱树,视财如命的摩根绝对会震怒!离间了摩根和特斯拉,对付无依无靠的特斯拉,不是轻而易举吗?爱迪生立刻叫间谍抓住一切时机,说服特斯拉放弃专利。

The businessmen controlling the colony from London knew nothing about
living in such a wild place. They wanted the settlers to search for
gold, and explore local rivers in hopes of finding a way to the East.
One settler knew this was wrong. His name was Captain John Smith. He
helped the colonists build houses and grow food by learning from the
local Indians. Still, the Jamestown settlers continued to die each year
from disease, lack of food and Indian attacks.

British citizens in the American colonies paid taxes but had no
representatives in the British Parliament. Taxation without
representation led to growing anger in the American colonies.

情况越来越朝着有利于爱迪生的方向发展。特斯拉在助手的说服下,放弃了成为世界最富有的科学家的机会,开始进行一项伟大的工作——利用尼亚加拉大瀑布的动力发电!

伦敦的商人们对殖民地艰苦的生活一无所知,他们一心希望定居者去寻找黄金,探索当地的河道,希望找到通往东方的水路。其中一名定居者知道这是错误的。他的名字叫约翰·史密斯。他帮定居者盖房子,向印第安人学种庄稼,然而,詹姆斯镇的定居者每年还是继续死于疾病、饥饿和印第安人的袭击。

我们还要讨论美国独立战争的原由。当时,美国殖民地上的英国公民虽然交税,但在英国议会里却没有代表席位。”纳税无代表”的状况引起了公愤。

很快,他再次成功了。水电能以低廉的价格输送到千家万户。摩根获取的利润大幅度减少,再加上爱迪生多次挑拨,对特斯拉的不满渐渐多了起来。

The London Company sent six thousand settlers to Virginia between
sixteen-oh-six and sixteen twenty-two. More than four thousand died
during that time.

The leaders of the revolt made important changes. They decided that any
free citizen could be a candidate for public office. And they made sure
that all free men who owned land and paid taxes were permitted to vote.

没过多久,特斯拉发现了大气中存在一个独特的“电离层”,他以兴建全球通信中心为名,说服摩根注资15万美元进行无线输电研究。爱迪生再也坐不住了。如果特斯拉的实验成功,电力就会完全免费。这样,他就彻底完了。

在1606年到1622年间,伦敦公司一共向维吉尼亚送去了六千名定居者,其中四千多人都没能活下来。

美国独立战争的领导人们做出重大变动,规定凡是自由人都可以参加公职的选举,而且拥有土地并且纳税的自由人都有权投票。

爱迪生私下会见摩根,说特斯拉简直是疯子,他的方案就好比通过收音机从乌克兰输来天然气到美国,根本就是天方夜谭。摩根立刻终止了和特斯拉的合作,并把他逐出公司。

VOICE ONE:

Not until nineteen twenty did the Constitution give women the right to
vote. Later, another change lowered the voting age for Americans from
twenty-one to eighteen.

离开无情的摩根后,靠救济金度日的特斯拉独自进行球形闪电研究。很快他便能准确地将交流电进行远距离无线传输。据说俄罗斯通古斯大爆炸,就是他的杰作。照这样的势头发展下去,他极有可能成为有史以来最伟大的科学家。但狡诈的爱迪生紧急密会摩根,说特斯拉的研究会摧毁摩根一切赖以支撑的赚钱基础——电力、报业、能源等。摩根惊出一身冷汗,他通知所有财团,停止给特斯拉供应资金,并以经济手腕影响美国教育界,从课本上删除特斯拉的名字。

History experts say that all the settlers surely would have died without
the help of the local Powhatan Indians. The Indians gave the settlers
food. They taught them how to live in the forest. And the Powhatan
Indians showed the settlers how to plant new crops and how to clear the
land for building.

但直到二十世纪二十年代,宪法才给予妇女投票
权。后来的一项修正案又把美国投票的法定年龄从21岁降低到了18岁。

1943年,贫病交加的特斯拉死在一个简陋的旅馆。而爱迪生通过直流电专利费谋取的利润,一辈子也用不完。讽刺的是,通用电气公司的许多理论和产品思路都来自特斯拉,当然,这都是免费使用的。

历史学家说,如果不是当地波瓦坦印第安人的帮助,来自英国的定居者恐怕一个也活不下来。印第安人给他们食物,教他们如何在树林里生活,还告诉他们如何种庄稼,如何盖房子。

Our programs explain the thinking behind these and other rights. They
also tell the story of each presidential election and presidency in
American history.

时间是公正的,尽管特斯拉生前遭受了种种不公的待遇,但他最终还是被人们记住:1960年,为了表彰特斯拉的贡献,国际电工委员会将磁感应强度的国际单位制命名为特斯拉,简称T。相反,爱迪生确实赚到了巨额的财富,但他的所作所为,却为世人所不齿,给自己留下了一个永远抹不掉的污点!

The settlers accepted the Indians’ help. Then, however, the settlers
took whatever else they wanted by force. In sixteen twenty-two, the
local Indians attacked the settlers for interfering with Indian land.
Three hundred forty settlers died. The colonists answered the attack by
destroying the Indian tribes living along Virginia’s coast.

VOICE ONE:

这些定居者接受了印第安人的帮助,但后来又依靠武力抢夺印第安人的东西。1622年,当地的印第安部落为维护自己的土地向定居者发动袭击,打死了340个定居者。定居者发动反击,彻底摧毁了居住在维吉尼亚沿海的印第安部落。

THE MAKING OF A NATION explores the good and the bad in American
history. For example, how could slavery exist in a nation whose people
declared that “all men are created equal” and with a right to life,
liberty and the pursuit of happiness?

The settlers recognized that they would have to grow their own food and
survive on their own without help from England or anyone else. The
Jamestown colony was clearly established by sixteen twenty-four. It was
even beginning to earn money by growing and selling a new crop, tobacco.

建国史话并不回避美国历史上负面的东西。比如说,在一个宣称”人人生而平等”,有生存、自由和追求幸福的权利的国家里,怎么又会容忍奴隶的存在呢?

这些定居者意识到,他们必须自己自足,不能依靠别人。1624年,詹姆斯镇已经初具规模,甚至开始通过种植和销售一种新的作物–烟草–来盈利了。

Many programs tell about the ideas and issues that have shaped the
United States. But most importantly, they tell about the people.

VOICE TWO:

建国史话主要讲的是美国人民。

The other early English settlements in North America were much to the
north of Virginia, in the present state of Massachusetts. The people who
settled there left England for different reasons than those who settled
in Jamestown. The Virginia settlers were looking for ways to earn money
for English businesses. The settlers in Massachusetts were seeking
religious freedom.

George Washington

维吉尼亚以北也有一些英国早期殖民地,位于今天马萨诸塞州的位置。维吉尼亚的定居者到新大陆来的目的是给英国商人赚钱,而马萨诸塞州的定居者却是为了找寻宗教自由。

George Washington

VOICE ONE:

For example, George Washington was a farmer before he became a military
commander. He became president because the citizens of the new country
wanted him as their first leader.

King Henry the Eighth of England had separated from the Roman Catholic
Church. His daughter, Queen Elizabeth, established the Protestant
religion in England. It was called the Church of England, or the
Anglican Church. The Anglican Church, however, was similar to that of
the Roman Catholic Church.

After two terms, he gave up power by his own choice. He once again
became a farmer and a private citizen. In his farewell address in
seventeen ninety-six, he warned Americans about the dangers of political
parties.

英国国王亨利八世脱离了罗马教廷,他的女儿伊丽莎白女王在英国建立了新教,称为英国教会,也叫圣公会。但是圣公会跟罗马天主教会很相似。

比如说,美国开国总统乔治·华盛顿领导独立战争之前是农场主,连任两届总统后,他主动放弃权力,又回去做他的农场主。他在1796
年的告别演说里,对美国政党政治的危险提出了警告。

Not all Protestants liked this. Some wanted to leave the Anglican Church
and form religious groups of their own. In sixteen-oh-six, members of
one such group in the town of Scrooby did separate from the Anglican
Church. About one hundred twenty-five people left England for Holland.
They found problems there too, so they decided to move again…to the New
World.

Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence. It told the
world that the people of this new country would no longer answer to a
European ruler.

有些新教徒对这种情况感到不满。有些人希望脱离圣公会,自己成立宗教团体。1606年,司克罗比村一个宗教团体的成员脱离圣公会,离开英国,前往荷兰,他们在荷兰同样遇到了问题,因此决定再次启程,到新大陆去。

VOICE TWO:

These people were called pilgrims, because that is the name given to
people who travel for religious purposes.

Abraham Lincoln

这些人为宗教的目的而远征,被称为清教徒pilgrims。

Abraham Lincoln

VOICE TWO:

Some of the people who formed the United States into a nation during the
seventeen hundreds were well educated and wealthy. Abraham Lincoln was
not. Still, he grew up to become president.

About thirty-five pilgrims were among the passengers on a ship called
the Mayflower in sixteen twenty. It left England to go to Virginia. But
the Mayflower never reached Virginia. Instead, it landed to the north,
on Cape Cod Bay. The group decided to stay there instead of trying to
find Jamestown.

美国很多开国元勋都是有钱人,受过良好教育,但美国南北战争期间的总统林肯却并非出生在富有的家庭。

1620年,大约35名清教徒跟其他人一起,乘坐五月花号,离开英国,前往维吉尼亚。但是五月花号没有找到维吉尼亚,而是停在了更靠北的科德角湾。船上的乘客决定就在这里住下来。

Abraham Lincoln became president during the eighteen sixties when
several southern states decided they no longer wanted to be part of the
United States. We tell how President Lincoln dealt with the terrible
Civil War that almost split the country apart.

The pilgrims and the others on the Mayflower saw a need for rules that
would help them live together peacefully. They believed they were not
under English control since they did not land in Virginia. So they wrote
a plan of government, called the Mayflower Compact. It was the first
such plan ever developed in the New World.

他十九世纪六十年代任职期间,南部的几个州决定脱离出去,差点儿造成国家的分裂,我们要回顾林肯是如何处理这场内战的。

为了和平共处,他们觉得有必要定点儿规矩。他们觉得,既然不在维吉尼亚,就不应该受英国的管辖。于是他们制定了所谓的”五月花公约”,这是新大陆上的殖民地制定的第一份规划政府的文件。

VOICE ONE:

They elected a man called William Bradford as the first governor of
their Plymouth Colony. We know about the first thirty years of the
Plymouth Colony because William Bradford described it in his book, Of
Plymouth Plantation.

One of our programs deals with a speech he gave in the little town of
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. A great battle had been fought there.
President Lincoln had been asked to come to Gettysburg to say a few
words at the dedication of a military burial place.

他们还选举威廉·布雷德福担任普利茅斯殖民地的第一任总督。布雷德福撰写的《关于普利茅斯庄园》让后人了解到了普利茅斯殖民地前三十年的历史。

我们将在节目中介绍林肯著名的盖茨堡演说。

As happened in Jamestown, about half the settlers in Plymouth died the
first winter. The survivors were surprised to find an Indian who spoke
English. His name was Squanto. He had been kidnapped by an English sea
captain and had lived in England before returning to his people.

The speech was short. President Lincoln honored the young men who had
died on that bloody battlefield. He also told the world why the terrible
war was being fought and why it was so important.

跟詹姆斯镇一样,普利茅斯大约一半的定居者也没能熬过第一个冬天。幸存者意外地发现了一个讲英文的印第安人,叫斯考托。他以前曾经被一个英国船长绑架,在英国生活一段时间后又返回了自己的部落。

“Four score and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth on this
continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the
proposition that all men are created equal.”

The Pilgrims believed Squanto was sent to them from God. He made it
possible for them to communicate with the native people. He showed them
the best places to fish, what kind of crops to plant and how to grow
them. He provided them with all kinds of information they needed to
survive. The settlers invited the Indians to a feast in the month of
November to celebrate their successes and to thank Squanto for his help.
Americans remember that celebration every year when they observe the
Thanksgiving holiday.

演说一上来是,”八十七年前,我们的父辈在这个大陆上创建了一个新国家,它孕育于自由之中,奉行人人生而平等的原则。”

清教徒认为斯考托是上帝派来帮助他们的,帮他们跟印第安人沟通,告诉他们哪里能钓到大鱼,最好的作物是什么。斯考托向他们提供了生存必须的一切知识。定居者们11月邀请印第安人来会餐,庆祝他们的成功,也感谢斯考托的帮助。这一传统作为感恩节保留至今。

Those words were just the first sentence. After President Lincoln wrote
the speech, he felt sad. He considered it a failure. In fact, his words
earned the respect of history. You can hear the full Gettysburg Address
in our programs about the life and presidency of Abraham Lincoln.

VOICE ONE:

林肯写完这篇演说稿后,觉得很伤心,认为写得很失败,但是这篇讲话却经住了历史的考验,一直传颂到今天。

Other English settlers began arriving in the area now called New
England. One large group was called the Puritans. Like the pilgrims, the
Puritans did not agree with the Anglican Church. But they did not want
to separate from it. The Puritans wanted to change it to make it more
holy. Their desire for this change made them unwelcome in England.

VOICE TWO:

还有一些英国定居者到了今天的新英格兰地区,其中一个人数众多的团体叫puritans,也是清教徒,但是跟普利茅斯殖民地的清教徒不同,他们虽然并不认同圣公会,但是也不希望脱离圣公会,而是希望对圣公会进行改革。

THE MAKING OF A NATION touches on many different subjects. One of them
is social change. For example, we tell about the changes that took place
in the nineteen twenties, known as the Roaring Twenties.

The first ship carrying Puritans left England for America in sixteen
thirty. By the end of that summer, one thousand Puritans had landed in
the northeastern part of the new country. The new English King, Charles,
had given permission for them to settle the Massachusetts Bay area.

Many young people decided they no longer needed to follow the
conservative traditions of their parents and grandparents. This was the
age of jazz.

他们最早是1630年开始离开英国的,到夏天快要结束的时候,已经有一千名清教徒到达了新大陆的东北部。当时的英国国王查理允许他们在马萨诸塞湾住下来。

建国史话涉及美国历史的方方面面,其中一个重要领域是社会的变革。例如,我们要介绍二十世纪二十年代所谓”喧闹的二十年代”,那时候,很多年轻人觉得自己不必再遵循父母、祖父母保守的传统观念了,这也是爵士年代。

VOICE TWO:

VOICE ONE:

The Puritans began leaving England in large groups. Between sixteen
thirty and sixteen forty, twenty thousand sailed for New England. They
risked their lives on the dangerous trip. They wanted to live among
people who believed as they did, people who honored the rules of the
Bible. Puritans believed that the Bible was the word of God.

But music and social values were not the only things changing. The
Roaring Twenties were also a time of fast-moving economic change.
Productivity grew sharply. At the same time, the divide between rich and
poor Americans grew wider.

随后,清教徒开始大批离开英国,在1630年到1640年期间,先后有两万名清教徒乘船前往新英格兰。他们不顾旅途的危险,希望跟志同道合的人住在一起。他们相信,圣经是上帝的教诲。

那个年代的变化并不局限于音乐和社会价值观念,”喧闹的二十年代”同时也是经济巨变的时代,生产效率显著提高,贫富分化也日益严重。

The Puritans and other Europeans, however, found a very different people
in the New World. They were America’s native Indians. That will be our
story next week.

By the end of the Roaring Twenties, the economy was ready to collapse.
Then, in October of nineteen twenty-nine, the stock market crashed. What
followed was an economic disaster worse than any the modern world has
ever known.

然而,英国的清教徒和其他欧洲人在新大陆上发现了跟自己截然不同的人,他们就是美国的印第安土著居民。

到”喧闹的二十年代”
结束前,美国经济已经走到了崩溃的边缘。1929年10月,股市崩盘,引发了大萧条–现代社会最严重的一次经济灾难。

VOICE ONE:

We examine the causes of the Great Depression and how it affected
Americans and the rest of the world. We tell the story of people who
lost their jobs, their homes and their hope for the future.

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach. This is
Rich Kleinfeldt

VOICE TWO:

VOICE TWO:

Franklin Roosevelt was elected with a promise to bring the country out
of the Depression. On March fourth, nineteen thirty-three, he was
inaugurated to his first of four terms. He served longer than any other
president in American history. We discuss Roosevelt’s New Deal programs
and his leadership during World War Two.

And this is Sarah Long. Join us again next week for another Voice of
America Special English program about the history of the United States.

弗兰克林·罗斯福竞选总统时,承诺要带领美国走出大萧条。1933年3月4号,罗斯福宣誓就职,后来成为美国历史上任期最长的一位总统。我们要介绍著名的罗斯福新政的内容,以及他在第二次世界大战中发挥的领导作用。

But not all of the subjects on THE MAKING OF A NATION are so serious. We
also look at the history of American popular culture and subjects like
the rise of high technology. Something for everyone.

不过,建国史话也不全是严肃的话题。我们也要回顾美国文化的历史变迁。

VOICE ONE:

Today’s news is not only tomorrow’s history, it will also become part of
THE MAKING OF A NATION.

今天的新闻不仅是明天的历史,也会成为建国史话的一部分。

But for now, we start again from the beginning. I’m Shirley Griffith.

VOICE TWO:

And I’m Steve Ember. Join us at this time next week and every week as we
go back in time. Listen on radio or online at www.unsv.com as we bring
you THE MAKING OF A NATION in VOA Special English.

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