殖民時期的美国

第5集 – 欧洲移民和印第安人的冲突

美解密越战档案 发现与阿富汗战争惊人相似

17世纪初期年来到北美英国殖民地的多半是英国人,其他则来自荷兰、瑞典、德国、法国,稍晚则有来自苏格兰与北爱尔兰的移民。有些人离开家园是为了逃离战争、政治压迫、宗教迫害或死刑。有些身份为仆人的人则为了自由而离开。被当成奴隶贩卖的非洲黑人带著脚镣手铐抵达。

VOICE ONE:

眼下,美国正深陷阿富汗战争泥潭中。据英国《经济学家》7月22日称,阿富汗未来的局势仍旧不确定。伊朗议长拉里贾尼21日也表示,华盛顿仍在重复过去的错误,阿富汗将成为美国的另一个越南。

1690年时的人口为25 万人,过了不到10年,人口就达250万人。

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

为了给美国处理阿富汗问题提供经验教训,美国参议院外交委员会7月14日解密了1175页文件,将该委员会1967年到1968年“执行委员会会议”的记录公之于众,其中也包括白宫高官在闭门会议上的证词。通过这些文件,我们可以一窥美国议员的思维方式。

移民者来到美国的原因有许多,他们最终建立起13个风格各异的殖民地。这种差异性在3大殖民区块中更为明显。

VOICE TWO:

“当年情况和现在惊人相似”

第一批殖民地是建在大西洋沿岸以及流向海洋的河流旁。东北部有树木覆盖的山丘,土壤中多的是冰河时期冰河融化所遗留下来的石头,水力的运用极为方便,新英格兰一地的马萨诸塞、康乃狄克与罗德岛,因此发展出以制木、渔业、造船与贸易为主的经济。中部的殖民地包括纽约与宾夕福尼亚,那里的气候比较温和,地形也比较多变化,工业与农业因运而生,社会也更为多元与国际化。以纽约为例,组成份子包括波西米亚人、丹麦人、荷兰人、英国人、法国人、德国人、爱尔兰人、意大利人、挪威人、波兰人、波多黎各人、苏格兰人及瑞典人。维吉尼亚、乔治亚与卡罗莱纳在内的南方殖民地,有比较长的生长季节,再加上肥沃的土壤,经济活动因此以农业为主,有小本经营的农夫和坐拥大片农场、靠著非洲奴隶耕作的有钱贵族地主。

And this is Ray Freeman with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States.

参院外交委员会主席是2004年代表民主党竞选总统的约翰·克里。《纽约时报》15日称,1968年,当参议员们正在为越战激辩时,克里正在驶往越南的船上。美国《波士顿环球报》15日报道,克里曾是越战英雄。1971年,参加越战的克里曾在该外交委员会作证,反对这场战争。

移民者与原住民间的关系,是一种既合作又冲突的不安混合。部分地方虽有贸易往来或社会交流,但总的来说,一旦新殖民地进行扩张,印地安人就得被迫迁离,通常是在战败之后。

VOICE ONE:

《波士顿环球报》称,克里之所以解密这些文件,是因为他认为,这些辩论能为解决当下的阿富汗问题及其他热点问题提供经验和教训。克里在接受采访时说,当年有些情况和现在惊人相似。在他看来,应该从前辈的处理方式中学到大量东西。

移民者与原住民间的关系,是一种既合作又冲突的不安混合。部分地方虽有贸易往来或社会交流,但总的来说,一旦新殖民地进行扩张,印地安人就得被迫迁离,通常是在战败之后。殖民地的开发并非由英国政府直接资助,而是由私人团体,除了乔治亚以外,所有的殖民地都是以股东制的公司形式或以国王特许所有权的方式经营。部分受到公司领导人的严格统治,但所有的殖民地终究发展出一种以英国律法先例与传统为基础的参与性管理制度。

Our story today is a sad one. It is the story of a clash of peoples,
religions, ideas, and cultures. It is a story of strongly held ideas and
a lack of compromise.

这些解密文件显示当时激辩的主要问题是:这场战争打成啥样了?将花多少美元?牺牲多少人?胜利后会是什么结果?克里表示:“他们的辩论是坦诚的,问题也很沉重。这里没人哗众取宠,也没人刻意作秀,而是真正的政策辩论。”克里还说,他们能举办这样高水平、有胆识的辩论,让时下的议员们感受到压力。

英国当时经历多年的政治混乱,1688至1689年的光荣革命(Glorious
Revolution)达到最高峰,英王詹姆士二世(King James
II)遭到罢黜,君主的权力从此受到限制,人民则获得更多的自由。美国的殖民地从中获益。殖民地会议借此以地方议会自居,通过限制皇家总督权力和扩张自身权力的议案。

今天我们要讲述一段令人痛心的故事。

据美联社15日报道,克里赞不绝口地说:“根本想不到在国会的办公室里,政策制定者们对这场战争竟如此痛苦,竟有如此胆识进行这番对话。”克里表示,当年参加越战的军官现在有些人已是参院外交委员会委员。

在随后的数十年,殖民地总督与议会间一再发生争执,让殖民地人民意识到英国本土与美国殖民地之间逐渐加深的歧异。这些争执所衍生的原则与先例,成为殖民地的不成文宪法。

It is the story of the relations between Europeans and the natives who
had lived for thousands of years in the area we now call North America.

推测美会在越战中越陷越深

首先,殖民地只要待在大英国协的体制内实行自治自理,后来才出现独立的呼声。

欧洲定居者来到北美大陆后,跟在那里生活了几千年的土著居民发生冲突,二者的宗教、信仰和文化差异造成了剧烈的摩擦。

据美联社15日报道,在越战正酣时,美国国会参议员对白宫的傲慢痛心疾首,对自己的无能为力烦躁不安,对约翰逊政府误导他们非常恼火。为此,他们就是否告诉美国人民真相、告诉之后会带来何种后果进行激辩。

VOICE TWO:

1964年8月1日,一艘侵入北越领海的美国军舰与北越海军交火。1964年8月4日,白宫方面声称,美国军舰遭北越鱼雷艇袭击(即东京湾事件,亦称北部湾事件)。翌日,美国轰炸北越。美国总统约翰逊以此为由劝说国会授权在越南扩大军事行动。美国国会遂于1964年8月7日通过《东京湾决议案》,授权总统使用武装力量。美国自此深陷越战泥潭。

Many different Native American groups lived on the East Coast of what
would become United States. They spoke many different languages. Some
were farmers, some were hunters. Some fought many wars, others were
peaceful.

近年来的历史学家们得出结论,8月4日的所谓袭击纯属子虚乌有。

在今天的北美大陆东部沿海,也就是现在美国所在的地方,居住着很多印第安人的部落,他们讲不同的语言,有些从事农耕,有些以狩猎为生,有些四处征战,有些则热爱和平。

1968年,正是参院外交委员会对越战感到极其痛苦的时候,该委员会因越战问题与白宫关系恶化。外交委员会对1964年的东京湾事件“旧事重提”,对白宫的相关说法表示质疑甚至愤怒。

These groups are called tribes. Their names are known to most
Americans…the Senecas, the Mohawks, the Seminole, the Cherokee to name
only a few.

解密文件的第290页记录了1968年2月的闭门会议,当时的外交委员会主席、民主党人威廉·富布赖特担忧地对议员们说,东京湾事件发生后,美国政府匆忙采取军事报复行动,这没有任何理由。而政府对于此事的遁词带来这样的问题——如果它要动用核武器,将会怎样。富布赖特说:“如果这是他们的行事方式,那么,他们同样会以此方式来动用核武器。在我看来,接下来他们很可能在不告诉我们的前提下,就动用核武器。”他表示,如果参议员们不像对待宣战权那样坚守立场的话,“我就看不出我们的真正作用何在”,“我们就是政府机构中毫无用处的阑尾”。

这些部落很多延续至今,其中包括塞讷卡人、莫霍克人、西米诺尔人和彻罗基人等等。

来自艾奥瓦州的共和党籍参议员伯克·希肯卢珀认为,国会议员对行政机构“低声下气”。来自爱达荷州的民主党籍参议员弗兰克·丘奇说,在民主社会,如果隐瞒真相,你就不能指望人民能进行判断,而他们的孩子却在战场牺牲或即将牺牲。

VOICE ONE:

来自蒙大拿州的民主党籍参议员迈克·曼斯菲尔德推测,美国会在越战中越陷越深,花费也越来越大。“我们处于一个不知道如何跳出的箱子中。”但曼斯菲尔德反对公布质疑白宫的报告。在他看来,公布只会“进一步撕裂这个国家”。

These tribes had developed their own cultures many years before the
first European settlers arrived. Each had a kind of religion, a strong
spiritual belief. Many tribes shared a similar one.

第一批欧洲移民来到北美大陆之前的很多年,这些印第安人部落就已经建立起了各自的文化和信仰。

The Indians on the East Coast shared a highly developed system of trade.
Researchers say different tribes of Native Americans traded goods all
across the country.

东海岸的印第安人还拥有高度发达的贸易体系。研究人员发现,北美各地的印第安部落曾从事广泛的物物交换。

VOICE TWO:

The first recorded meetings between Europeans and the natives of the
East Coast took place in the fifteen hundreds. Fishermen from France and
the Basque area of Spain crossed the Atlantic Ocean. They searched for
whales along the east coast of North America. They made temporary camps
along the coast. They often traded with the local Indians. The Europeans
often paid Indians to work for them. Both groups found this to be a
successful relationship.

欧洲人和北美东海岸印第安人之间第一次有记载的会面发生在十六世纪。当时,法国和西班牙巴斯克地区的渔民横穿大西洋,在北美东部沿海地区寻找鲸鱼。他们在岸上架设临时营地,经常跟当地的印第安人交换物品,还雇他们干活,双方都觉得这种关系挺不错。

Several times different groups of fishermen tried to establish a
permanent settlement on the coast, but the severe winters made it
impossible. These fishing camps were only temporary.

欧洲渔民也曾多次试图在当地建立永久性定居点,但是都因为受不了冬天的寒冷而以失败告终。

VOICE ONE:

The first permanent settlers in New England began arriving in sixteen
twenty. They wanted to live in peace with the Indians. They needed to
trade with them for food. The settlers also knew that a battle would
result in their own, quick defeat because they were so few in number.

1620年,欧洲的第一批永久性定居者来到了新英格兰地区。他们希望跟印第安人和平共处。他们需要从印第安人那里换取食物。他们同时也清楚地知道,自己势单力薄,一旦发生冲突,根本不是印第安人的对手。

Yet, problems began almost immediately. Perhaps the most serious was the
different way the American Indians and the Europeans thought about land.
This difference created problems that would not be solved during the
next several hundred years.

然而,很快,问题就不可避免地出现了。双方对土地的不同看法引起了巨大的分歧,带来了随后几百年都无法解决的问题。

VOICE TWO:

Land was extremely important to the European settlers. In England, and
most other countries, land meant wealth. Owning large amounts of land
meant a person had great wealth and political power.

对于欧洲定居者来说,土地的重要性非同小可。在英国等欧洲国家,土地意味着财富,拥有大批土地能给一个人带来巨大的财富和权力。

Many of the settlers in this new country could never have owned land in
Europe. They were too poor. And they belonged to minority religious
groups. When they arrived in the new country, they discovered no one
seemed to own the huge amounts of land.

来到北美大陆的很多定居者都是欧洲的穷人,属于少数宗教派别,根本不可能拥有自己的土地。他们来到新大陆后,发现这里的土地好像根本就没有主人。

Companies in England needed to find people willing to settle in the new
country. So they offered land to anyone who would take the chance of
crossing the Atlantic Ocean. For many, it was a dream come true. It was
a way to improve their lives. The land gave them a chance to become
wealthy and powerful.

英国的公司需要吸引定居者到新大陆去,于是就用土地作为奖赏。对于很多人来说,这无疑是梦想成真,成了他们改变生活的机会,土地让他们有机会积累财富和权力。

VOICE ONE:

American Indians believed no person could own land. They believed,
however, that anyone could use it. Anyone who wanted to live on and grow
crops on a piece of land was able to do so.

然而,美洲的印第安人却认为,土地不属于任何人,是大家共同分享的财富。他们觉得,任何人都可以在一片土地上住下来,种庄稼,以此养家糊口。

The American Indians lived within nature. They lived very well without
working very hard. They were able to do this because they understood the
land and their environment. They did not try to change the land.

印第安人生活在大自然里,了解土地和周围的环境,并不想改变大自然。他们不用太辛苦就能生活得很好。

They might farm in an area for a few years. Then they would move on.
They permitted the land on which they had farmed to become wild again.
They might hunt on one area of land for some time, but again they would
move on. They hunted only what they could eat, so the numbers of animals
continued to increase. The Indians understood nature and made it work
for them.

不论是农耕还是狩猎,他们每过几年就会换一个地方,让土地有机会休耕,让动物的数量可以继续增加。印第安人熟悉自然生态规律,让大自然为自己服务。

VOICE TWO:

The first Europeans to settle in New England in the northeastern part of
America were few in number. They wanted land. The Indians did not fear
them. There was enough land for everyone to use and plant crops. It was
easy to live together. The Indians helped the settlers by teaching them
how to plant crops and survive on the land.

在新英格兰地区定居的第一批欧洲人数量有限。他们渴望得到土地。由于土地资源丰富,所以印第安人对此并不担心,双方尚可和睦相处。印第安人还教会了欧洲移民耕种和生存的技能。

But the Indians did not understand that the settlers were going to keep
the land. This idea was foreign to the Indians. It was like to trying to
own the air, or the clouds.

印第安人没有想到的是,欧洲定居者要把土地据为己有,对他们来说,这是难以想象的,就好像要占有空气和云彩一样不可思议。

As the years passed, more and more settlers arrived, and took more and
more land. They cut down trees. They built fences to keep people and
animals out. They demanded that the Indians stay off their land.

年复一年,踏上北美大陆的欧洲定居者不断增加,他们占据的土地也越来越多。他们砍伐树木,搭起围栏,把外人和猛兽挡在外面,并要求印第安人不要侵犯他们的土地。

VOICE ONE:

Religion was another problem between the settlers and the Indians. The
settlers in New England were very serious about their Christian
religion. They thought it was the one true faith and all people should
believe in it. They soon learned that the Indians were not interested in
learning about it or changing their beliefs.

欧洲移民和北美印第安人之间的另外一大问题出在宗教上。在新英格兰定居的欧洲人都是虔诚的基督徒。他们视基督教为唯一的信仰,认为所有人都应该信仰基督。但是他们发现,印第安人对基督教并不感兴趣,也不打算改变自己的信仰。

Many settlers came to believe that Native Americans could not be trusted
because they were not Christians. The settler groups began to fear the
Indians. They thought of the Indians as a people who were evil because
they had no religion. The settlers told the Indians they must change and
become Christians. The Indians did not understand why they should change
anything.

很多欧洲定居者因此觉得,既然印第安人不是基督教徒,那他们就不值得信任。欧洲定居者认为,印第安人没有宗教信仰,所以是邪恶的人群。

VOICE TWO:

The European settlers failed to understand that the Native American
Indians were extremely religious people with a strong belief in unseen
powers. The Indians lived very close to nature. They believed that all
things in the universe depend on each other. All native tribes had
ceremonies that honored a creator of nature. American Indians recognized
the work of the creator of the world in their everyday life.

欧洲定居者不知道的是,美洲土著居民其实是非常虔诚的,他们相信无形的神灵。他们生活在大自然中,相信宇宙万物互相依存,所有部落都有向大自然的创造者祈福的仪式,他们在日常生活中总会看到宇宙创造者留下的痕迹。

VOICE ONE:

Other events also led to serious problems between the Native Americans
and the settlers. One serious problem was disease. The settlers brought
sickness with them from Europe. For example, the disease smallpox was
well known in Europe. Some people carried the bacteria that caused
smallpox, although they did not suffer the sickness itself.

疾病也给欧洲移民和美洲印第安人带来了摩擦。欧洲移民把天花等当时欧洲常见的疾病带到了美洲大陆。

Smallpox was unknown to Native Americans. Their bodies’ defense systems
could not fight against smallpox. It killed whole tribes. And, smallpox
was only one such disease. There were many others.

这些病毒是美洲土著居民从来都没听说过的,他们的免疫系统完全没有抵御能力,很多部落被传染后,死得一个不剩。

VOICE TWO:

The first meetings between settlers and Native Americans were the same
in almost every European settlement on the East Coast of America. The
two groups met as friends. They would begin by trading for food and
other goods.

北美大陆东部沿海各地的欧洲移民和印第安人关系的发展大同小异。他们一开始都能和睦相处,交换各种物资。

In time, however, something would happen to cause a crisis. Perhaps a
settler would demand that an Indian stay off the settler’s land. Perhaps
a settler, or Indian, was killed. Fear would replace friendship. One
side or the other would answer what they believed was an attack. A good
example of this is the violent clash called King Philip’s War.

但是随着时间的推移,危机迟早会爆发,要么是某个欧洲移民要求印第安人不要踏上他的土地,要么是某个欧洲定居者或是某个印第安人被杀害,使恐惧逐渐取代了友谊,其中一方会觉得受到了对方的袭击,并奋起反击,历史上的“菲利普王战争”就是一个很好的例子。

VOICE ONE:

Matacom was a leader of the Wampanoag tribe that lived in the
northern-most colonies. He was known to the English as King Philip.
Without the help of his tribe, the first European settlers in that area
might not have survived their first winter. The Wampanoag Indians
provided them with food. They taught the settlers how to plant corn and
other food crops. The two groups were very friendly for several years.

马塔卡姆是万帕诺亚格部落的首领,英国人称他为“菲利普王”。第一批欧洲定居者完全是靠了万帕诺亚格部落的帮助,才渡过了第一个严冬。万帕诺亚格部落向欧洲定居者提供食物,还教会他们种植谷物,双方和睦相处了好几年。

As the years passed, however, fear and a lack of understanding
increased. Matacom’s brother died of a European disease. Matacom blamed
the settlers. He also saw how the increasing numbers of settlers were
changing the land. He believed they were destroying it.

但是好景不长,彼此间的恐惧和缺少了解与日俱增。马塔卡姆的兄弟死于一种欧洲疾病,马塔卡姆认为这都是欧洲人的错。他还目睹了定居者给土地带来的变化,认为他们是在摧毁这片土地。

VOICE TWO:

One small crisis after another led to the killing of a Christian Indian
who lived with the settlers. The settlers answered this by killing three
Indians. A war quickly followed. It began in sixteen seventy-five and
continued for almost two years. It was an extremely cruel war. Men,
women and children on both sides were killed. Researchers believe more
than six hundred settlers were killed. They also say as many as three
thousand Native Americans died in the violence.

双方间危机不断发生,一名跟定居者住在一起的印第安基督徒被杀,这成了最后的导火索。欧洲定居者发起反击,打死三个印第安人。战争一触即发,从1675年开始,持续了将近两年。这场战争极其残酷,双方都有许多人被打死。研究人员认为,先后一共有六百多个欧洲定居者被打死,还有多达三千名美洲土著居民在冲突中丧生。

VOICE ONE:

History experts say the tribe of Indians called the Narraganset were the
true victims of King Philip’s War. The Narraganset were not involved in
the war. They did not support one group or the other. However, the
settlers killed almost all the Narraganset Indians because they had
learned to fear all Indians.

历史学家说,纳拉干西特印第安人才是菲利普王战争真正的受害者。他们并没有卷入战争,也没有支持战争的任何一方,然而,欧洲定居者因为出于对印第安人的恐惧,几乎杀死了所有纳拉干西特人。

This fear, lack of understanding and the failure to compromise were not
unusual. They strongly influenced the European settlers relations with
Native Americans in all areas of the new country.

正是这种恐惧、缺乏了解和不愿妥协的对立情绪,塑造了美洲大陆上欧洲定居者跟土著印第安人的关系。

VOICE TWO:

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written and produced by Paul
Thompson. This is Ray Freeman.

VOICE ONE:

And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA
Special English program about the history of the United States.

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