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原标题:双语||乾隆皇帝给英国国王乔治三世的信(中英文)

原标题:横行欧洲的匈人真的是被霍去病打败的匈奴人吗?

M1909哈奇开斯轻机枪,是于一战前法国哈奇开斯公司设计生产的一款轻机枪,该枪的设计师是在哈奇开斯公司里的两名美籍设计师,
劳伦斯·贝内特和亨利·梅西。法军对该枪的简称是M1909,使用8毫米子弹。

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奉天承运,皇帝敕谕,英吉利国王知悉:

公元四世纪后半叶,一股强大的游牧势力突然在黑海沿岸出现。他们身材矮胖,面目狰狞,头颅发尖,脸上密布着刀刻的痕迹。没人知道他们的来历,仿佛是从地狱中凭空冒出的魔鬼。他们个个是马术高手,如同黏在马上一样,就像是希腊传说中的半人马。他们射箭百发百中,每一轮进攻,都如同一阵死亡浪潮。他们强盛的武力,给罗马世界造成了巨大的震撼,甚至引发了民族大迁徙的浪潮。而强盛一时的西罗马帝国,就是因此而灭亡。

M1909采用了与哈奇开斯M1900与M1907不同的思路。M1909式机枪小而轻,取消了原来笨重的三脚架,将零部件数量减到最少,而安装了更加结实的固定架,后来逐渐换为两脚架。

咨尔国王,远在重洋,倾心向化,特遣使恭赍表章,航海来廷,叩祝万寿,并备进方物,用将忱悃(还带了不少礼物,忠心可嘉)。**朕披阅表文,词意肫恳,具见国王恭顺之诚,深为嘉许。所有赍到表贡之正副使臣,念其奉使远涉,推恩加礼。已令大臣带领瞻觐(让大臣带领他们瞻仰天朝文明,赐予筵宴,叠加赏赉,用示怀柔。其已回珠山之管船官役人等六百余名,虽未来京,朕亦优加赏赐,俾得普沾恩惠,一视同仁(已经回到宁波珠山的管船役使等600多人虽然没有来京,我也一视同仁给与优厚赏赐,让大家都沾沾光)。**

不知从何时起,横行欧洲的匈人开始与中国的匈奴人划上等号。有学者认为,匈人其实是汉朝打败的北匈奴人的后裔。这一发现,让许多中国人欢欣鼓舞。既然汉朝打败了匈奴,而匈奴人又击败了罗马,那么就意味着汉朝一定胜过罗马。从民国开始,这种逻辑一直大行其道。在那个被列强所欺侮的年代,这种逻辑成为部分中国人民族自豪感的源泉,是黄种人胜过白种人的例证。然而从历史的角度看,这种逻辑真的成立吗?汉朝一定就胜过罗马吗?

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至尔国王表内恳请派一尔国之人住居天朝,照管尔国买卖一节,此则与天朝体制不合,断不可行。向来西洋各国有愿来天朝当差之人,原准其来京,但既来之后,即遵用天朝服色,安置堂内,永远不准复回本国,此系天朝定制,想尔国王亦所知悉。今尔国王欲求派一尔国之人居住京城,既不能若来京当差之西洋人,在京居住不归本国,又不可听其往来,常通信息,实为无益之事。且天朝所管地方至为广远,凡外藩使臣到京,驿馆供给,行止出入,俱有一定体制,从无听其自便之例。今尔国若留人在京,言语不通,服饰殊制,无地可以安置。若必似来京当差之西洋人,令其一律改易服饰,天朝亦不肯强人以所难。设天朝欲差人常驻尔国,亦岂尔国所能遵行(假设我天朝也派人常住你国,恐怕你国也不同意吧?)?况西洋诸国甚多,非止尔一国,若俱似尔国王恳请派人留京,岂能一一听许?是此事断难准行。岂能因尔国王一人之请,以至更张天朝百余年法度(不能因为国王你一人之请,将天朝一百多年的规矩给废了)。

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新机枪基本上一名士兵就能搬运,另一名弹药手负责供弹,是由两人小组来使用的。英军版本的M1909哈奇开斯轻机枪,配备了小三脚架。

若云尔国王为照料买卖起见,则尔国人在澳门贸易非止一日,原无不加以恩视(若派人来京是为了照顾买卖起见,那你国人在澳门贸易也不是一天两天了,天朝原本对商人就没有另眼相看)。即如从前博尔都噶尔亚、意达哩亚等国屡次遣使来朝,亦曾以照料贸易为请。天朝鉴其悃忱,优加体恤(像以前葡萄牙、意大利几国好几次派人来,也曾经以照顾贸易的名义请我关照。天朝看他们挺真诚的,也不容易,就多加体恤)。凡遇该国等贸易之事,无不照料周备。前次广东商人吴昭平有拖欠洋船价值银两者,俱饬令该管总督由官库内先行动支帑项代为清还,并将拖欠商人重治其罪。想此事尔国亦闻知矣,外国又何必派人留京,为此越例断不可行之请?况留人在京,距澳门贸易处所几及万里,伊亦何能照料耶(何况你们派人驻京,京城距澳门差不多一万里,他怎么能照顾到?)?**若云仰慕天朝,欲其观习教化,则天朝自有天朝礼法,与尔国各不相同。尔国所留之人即能习学,尔国自有风俗制度,亦断不能效法中国,即学会亦属无用**。

匈人真的是匈奴人?

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天朝扶有四海,惟励精图治,办理政务,奇珍异宝,并不贵重(天朝管辖的地方那么大,我想的是如何励精图治,至于奇珍异宝啥的我并不看得很重)。尔国王此次赍进各物,念其诚心远献,特谕该管衙门收纳(你啊这次进贡了不少礼物,念你特别诚恳大老远献来了,我才特别下旨让有关部门收了)。**其实天朝德威远被,万国来王,种种贵重之物,梯航毕集,无所下有,尔之正使等所亲见(其实天朝德泽四方,威加海内,万国来朝,通过水旱两路给我进贡,咱啥贵重玩意儿都不缺,这些你的使者都是亲眼见过的)。然从不贵奇巧,并无更需尔国制办物件。是尔国王所请派人留京一事,于天朝体制既属不合,而于尔国亦殊觉无益。特此详晰开示,遣令该使等安程回国(我把话都挑明了,现令让你国使者马上安排回国行程)**尔国王惟当善体朕意,益励款诚,永矢恭顺,以保义尔有邦,共享太平之福(国王你应该很好地领会我的意思,对天朝要更加诚心归附,发誓永远对天朝恭顺,天朝的恩泽就能施予你们国家,共建和谐社会)。除正副使臣以下各官及通事兵役人等正贯加赏各物件另单赏给外,兹因尔国使臣归国,特颁敕谕,并赐赍尔国王文绮珍物,具如常仪,加赐彩缎罗绮,文玩器具诸珍(除了正副使臣以下一干人等都按等级赏给各种物件,因为你国使者马上就要回国,我又特别下令,除了按常规赏给你的好玩意儿以外,加赐你绫罗绸缎、文玩器具等好玩意儿若干),另有清单。王其祗受,悉朕眷怀(皇恩浩荡,那都是我对你们的关怀)

要解开这个逻辑,我们必须首先解决一个问题–那就是匈人到底是不是匈奴。

但该枪的致命缺点是因枪弹外露,在到处都是沙尘和泥土的战壕里,笨拙的弹板式换弹方式很容易引起供弹不良的现象。图为简化版

特此敕谕。**——**《清实录》

在很多人眼里,匈奴之所以西迁,是西汉时期卫青和霍去病打击的结果,然而史实并非如此。匈奴的西迁,其实是从东汉汉和帝年间开始的。公元91年,东汉国舅、大将军窦宪率领汉军出塞数千里,将已经衰弱不堪的北匈奴势力彻底击溃。北匈奴单于带领着残余部众狼狈逃走,他们一路向西,从此不知所踪。虽然,东汉又用了几十年的时间,彻底清除了北匈奴在西域的残余势力。至此,北匈奴作为一个漠北政权,终于完全地消逝于历史的长河中。

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匈奴人到底逃到了哪里?这是近两千年来,一直困扰中国学人的问题。直到19世纪,中国学者才无意间寻找到了答案。清朝内阁学士洪钧通过翻译西亚历史,编纂成《元史译文证补》,其中详细介绍了阿提拉带领匈人入侵欧洲的始末。并且,洪钧将匈人(huns)视为匈奴的变音。

M1909哈奇开斯轻机枪的机匣,该枪的采用回转式闭锁。

Qianlong’s Letter to George III, 1793

在洪钧生活的年代,中国已经沦为西方的列强的半殖民地,中国人的民族自尊心不断受到打击。当中国的学人获知,自己的手下败将–匈奴,曾将西方世界搅得天翻地覆,不禁民族自豪感爆棚,几乎不假思索地接受了这一观点。此后的学者,如章太炎、梁启超等人,不断地为此说法背书。至少在中国,“匈人即为匈奴人”的说法已经成为铁案。1906年,《东方杂志》刊登了一篇名为《历史上黄白二种之竞争》的杂文,介绍了匈人击溃哥特人、罗马人的历史,并宣称这是黄人在武力上胜过白人的例证。

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事实上,“匈人即为匈奴”的说法,是18世纪的法国学者德·奎尼最先提出的,他在《匈奴通史》中,通过比较中西方史料,提出了匈人与匈奴同源的假说。其后,德国汉学家夏特补充、完善了德·奎尼的观点,并初步推测出匈奴人西迁的路线。

美军在1909年采用了这款枪,在春田兵工厂和柯尔特公司进行制造,称它为M1909贝内特-梅西轻机枪,并进行了一些改动,口径改为7.62,使用.30-06春田步枪弹,另外装上了瞄准镜。

You, O King, live beyond the confines of
many seas. Nevertheless, impelled by your humble desire to partake of
the benefits of our civilisation, you have dispatched a mission
respectfully bearing your memorial. Your Envoy has crossed the seas and
paid his respects at my Court on the anniversary of my birthday. To show
your devotion, you have also sent offerings of your country’s
produce.

然而从20世纪中期开始,西方学者逐渐开始质疑这一说法。例如英国的汤普森、德国的阿尔泰姆等等,他们认为匈人和匈奴之间存在非常大的差异,并缺乏有力的论据。在他们的影响下,“匈人即是匈奴人”的观点逐渐式微。然而,我国大多数学者仍然赞同老观点,并与西方学者唇枪舌剑。中国学者认为西方学者过于倨傲,他们否认“匈奴起源说”,是出于种族主义偏见。

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I have perused your memorial: the earnest
terms in which it is couched reveal a respectful humility on your part,
which is highly praiseworthy. In consideration of the fact that your
Ambassador and his deputy have come a long way with your memorial and
tribute, I have shown them high favour and have allowed them to be
introduced into my presence. To manifest my indulgence, I have
entertained them at a banquet and made them numerous gifts. I have also
caused presents to be forwarded to the Naval Commander and six hundred
of his officers and men, although they did not come to Peking, so that
they too may share in my all-­embracing kindness.

结合史料来看,对于匈人的起源,学者们有多种说法,如阿兰起源说、粟特起源说、嚈哒起源说等。然而,这几种说法都有相当明显的漏洞。

M1909贝内特-梅西轻机枪被美军士兵称之为“阳光下的枪”,是因为该枪在故障比较多,经常在夜间不能使用。

As to your entreaty to send one of your
nationals to be accredited to my Celestial Court and to be in control of
your country’s trade with China, this request is contrary to all usage
of my dynasty and cannot possibly be entertained. It is true that
Europeans, in the service of the dynasty, have been permitted to live at
Peking, but they are compelled to adopt Chinese dress, they are strictly
confined to their own precincts and are never permitted to return home.
You are presumably familiar with our dynastic regulations. Your proposed
Envoy to my Court could not be placed in a position similar to that of
European officials in Peking who are forbidden to leave China, nor could
he, on the other hand, be allowed liberty of movement and the privilege
of corresponding with his own country; so that you would gain nothing by
his residence in our midst.

例如从阿兰起源说来看。古罗马史学家马塞里努斯记载中的阿兰人,皆是身材高大,相貌漂亮,这就与匈人丑陋矮小的面貌形成鲜明的对比。

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Moreover, our Celestial dynasty possesses
vast territories, and tribute missions from the dependencies are
provided for by the Department for Tributary States, which ministers to
their wants and exercises strict control over their movements. It would
be quite impossible to leave them to their own devices. Supposing that
your Envoy should come to our Court, his language and national dress
differ from that of our people, and there would be no place in which to
bestow him. It may be suggested that he might imitate the Europeans
permanently resident in Peking and adopt the dress and customs of China,
but, it has never been our dynasty’s wish to force people to do things
unseemly and inconvenient. Besides, supposing I sent an Ambassador to
reside in your country, how could you possibly make for him the
requisite arrangements? Europe consists of many other nations besides
your own: if each and all demanded to be represented at our Court, how
could we possibly consent? The thing is utterly impracticable. How can
our dynasty alter its whole procedure and system of etiquette,
established for more than a century, in order to meet your individual
views? If it be said that your object is to exercise control over your
country’s trade, your nationals have had full liberty to trade at Canton
for many a year, and have received the greatest consideration at our
hands. Missions have been sent by Portugal and Italy, preferring similar
requests. The Throne appreciated their sincerity and loaded them with
favours, besides authorising measures to facilitate their trade with
China. You are no doubt aware that, when my Canton merchant, Wu
Chao-ping, who was in debt to foreign ships. I made the Viceroy advance
the monies due, out of the provincial treasury, and ordered him to
punish the culprit severely. Why then should foreign nations advance
this utterly unreasonable request to be represented at my Court? Peking
is nearly two thousand miles from Canton, and at such a distance what
possible control could any British representative exercise?

从嚈哒起源说来看,嚈哒人一直有白匈奴之称。中国史籍将嚈哒人的国度称为悦般国,这个国家位于中亚,中国史学家认为他们是北单于部众的后裔。然而,这种说法不过是中国人的误解。嚈哒人其实是大月氏和塞种人的后裔,他们曾经是匈奴帝国治下的异族,并非匈奴本部。德国汉学家夏德认为,中国史料所提到的嚈哒王忽倪,其实就是匈人国王阿提拉的幼子尔内克。然而,在阿提拉时期,匈人的势力并没有到达嚈哒地区,忽倪也绝不可能是尔内克。

M1909哈奇开斯轻机枪采用导气式自动原理,和众多使用弹匣的轻机枪不同,该枪使用的是30发保弹板供弹,这种供弹方式在轻机枪中是比较另类的。

If you assert that your reverence for Our
Celestial dynasty fills you with a desire to acquire our civilisation,
our ceremonies and code of laws differ so completely from your own that,
even if your Envoy were able to acquire the rudiments of our
civilisation, you could not possibly transplant our manners and customs
to your alien soil. Therefore, however adept the Envoy might become,
nothing would be gained thereby.

由于史料不详,为了解开匈人族源的问题,学者只能把希望寄托于现考古。20世纪40年代,苏联考古学家曾对一处匈人墓葬进行发掘,发现墓主具有明显的高加索人特征。然而从中国的史料来看,匈奴人具有明显的黄种人特征,这点和后来的鲜卑族大不一样。而且从霍去病墓前“马踏匈奴”的雕塑来看,匈奴人也的确是黄种人。从这里看,匈人和匈奴人在人种上,已经有些对不上。然而也有学者说,匈奴是个多民族、多人种混杂的部落联合体,有高加索种的人其实并不奇怪。况且匈奴西迁,难免与当地人民混血,有高加索种人的特征,也是说得过去的。由于匈奴多人种的特性,所以很难用检测DNA的手段判断匈人的族源。

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Swaying the wide world, I have but one
aim in view, namely, to maintain a perfect governance and to fulfil the
duties of the State: strange and costly objects do not interest me. If I
have commanded that the tribute offerings sent by you, O King, are to be
accepted, this was solely in consideration for the spirit which prompted
you to dispatch them from afar. Our dynasty’s majestic virtue has
penetrated unto every country under Heaven, and Kings of all nations
have offered their costly tribute by land and sea. As your Ambassador
can see for himself, we possess all things. I set no value on objects
strange or ingenious, and have no use for your country’s manufactures.
This then is my answer to your request to appoint a representative at my
Court, a request contrary to our dynastic usage, which would only result
in inconvenience to yourself. I have expounded my wishes in detail and
have commanded your tribute Envoys to leave in peace on their homeward
journey. It behoves you, O King, to respect my sentiments and to display
even greater devotion and loyalty in future, so that, by perpetual
submission to our Throne, you may secure peace and prosperity for your
country hereafter. Besides making gifts (of which I enclose an
inventory) to each member of your Mission, I confer upon you, O King,
valuable presents in excess of the number usually bestowed on such
occasions, including silks and curios-a list of which is likewise
enclosed. Do you reverently receive them and take note of my tender
goodwill towards you! A special mandate.

所以,无论从史料还是考古,都无法断定匈人和匈奴人的联系,无法形成文献与考古资料相结合的二重证据链。然而可以确定的是,无论是政权组织,还是社会风俗,亦或是文化艺术,匈人和匈奴人都有极大的差异。虽然不能完全排除匈奴和匈人的联系,但是无论在国际海事国内,“匈奴和匈人同源说”越来越站不住脚,匈人起源于匈奴人的可能性非常小

第一次世界大战结束后,很多国家都把M1909轻机枪从一线部队中撤装,用新型机枪来代替改枪,法国也不例外。不过,日本却在M1909轻机枪的基础上仿制出大正十一式轻机枪,也就是我们俗称的“歪把子”,许多缺陷也一起遗传了过来。

You, O King, from afar have yearned after
the blessings of our civilisation, and in your eagerness to come into
touch with our converting influence have sent an Embassy across the sea
bearing a memorial. I have already taken note of your respectful spirit
of submission, have treated your mission with extreme favour and loaded
it with gifts, besides issuing a mandate to you, O King, and honouring
you with the bestowal of valuable presents. Thus has my indulgence been
manifested.

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Yesterday your Ambassador petitioned my
Ministers to memorialise me regarding your trade with China, but his
proposal is not consistent with our dynastic usage and cannot be
entertained. Hitherto, all European nations, including your own
country’s barbarian merchants, have carried on their trade with our
Celestial Empire at Canton. Such has been the procedure for many years,
although our Celestial Empire possesses all things in prolific abundance
and lacks no product within its own borders. There was therefore no need
to import the manufactures of outside barbarians in exchange for our own
produce. But as the tea, silk and porcelain which the Celestial Empire
produces, are absolute necessities to European nations and to
yourselves, we have permitted, as a signal mark of favour, that foreign
hongs [merchant firms] should be established at Canton, so that your
wants might be supplied and your country thus participate in our
beneficence. But your Ambassador has now put forward new requests which
completely fail to recognise the Throne’s principle to “treat strangers
from afar with indulgence,” and to exercise a pacifying control over
barbarian tribes, the world over. Moreover, our dynasty, swaying the
myriad races of the globe, extends the same benevolence towards all.
Your England is not the only nation trading at Canton. If other nations,
following your bad example, wrongfully importune my ear with further
impossible requests, how will it be possible for me to treat them with
easy indulgence? Nevertheless, I do not forget the lonely remoteness of
your island, cut off from the world by intervening wastes of sea, nor do
I overlook your excusable ignorance of the usages of our Celestial
Empire. I have consequently commanded my Ministers to enlighten your
Ambassador on the subject, and have ordered the departure of the
mission. But I have doubts that, after your Envoy’s return he may fail
to acquaint you with my view in detail or that he may be lacking in
lucidity, so that I shall now proceed . . . to issue my mandate on each
question separately. In this way you will, I trust, comprehend my
meaning….

罗马人真的被匈人所击败?

(3) Your request for a small island near
Chusan, where your merchants may reside and goods be warehoused, arises
from your desire to develop trade. As there are neither foreign hongs
nor interpreters in or near Chusan, where none of your ships have ever
called, such an island would be utterly useless for your purposes. Every
inch of the territory of our Empire is marked on the map and the
strictest vigilance is exercised over it all: even tiny islets and
far­lying sand­banks are clearly defined as part of the provinces to
which they belong. Consider, moreover, that England is not the only
barbarian land which wishes to establish . . . trade with our Empire:
supposing that other nations were all to imitate your evil example and
beseech me to present them each and all with a site for trading
purposes, how could I possibly comply? This also is a flagrant
infringement of the usage of my Empire and cannot possibly be
entertained.

从上文我们可以得知,匈人与匈奴人很可能不是一回事。但是有人又要问了,汉朝和罗马同时遭遇游牧民族的入侵。汉朝顶住了野蛮人的进攻,并将之逐向远方;而罗马却被匈人打败,并亡于野蛮民族之手。而事实真的如此吗?

(4) The next request, for a small site in
the vicinity of Canton city, where your barbarian merchants may lodge
or, alternatively, that there be no longer any restrictions over their
movements at Aomen, has arisen from the following causes. Hitherto, the
barbarian merchants of Europe have had a definite locality assigned to
them at Aomen for residence and trade, and have been forbidden to
encroach an inch beyond the limits assigned to that locality…. If
these restrictions were withdrawn, friction would inevitably occur
between the Chinese and your barbarian subjects, and the results would
militate against the benevolent regard that I feel towards you. From
every point of view, therefore, it is best that the regulations now in
force should continue unchanged….

首先,我们从罗马来看。所谓亡于蛮族的罗马,主要指的是西罗马帝国。而灭亡他们的,主要是以哥特人为首的日耳曼人,而非匈人。哥特人本生活于黑海沿岸,从事农耕活动。匈人自东方出现后,首先征服了临近哥特人的阿兰人。随后,他们又和阿兰人一起,赶走了哥特人。

(7) Regarding your nation’s worship of
the Lord of Heaven, it is the same religion as that of other European
nations. Ever since the beginning of history, sage Emperors and wise
rulers have bestowed on China a moral system and inculcated a code,
which from time immemorial has been religiously observed by the myriads
of my subjects. There has been no hankering after heterodox doctrines.
Even the European (missionary) officials in my capital are forbidden to
hold intercourse with Chinese subjects; they are restricted within the
limits of their appointed residences, and may not go about propagating
their religion. The distinction between Chinese and barbarian is most
strict, and your Ambassador’s request that barbarians shall be given
full liberty to disseminate their religion is utterly
unreasonable.

哥特人在匈人的压迫下,被迫西迁。西哥特人进入西、东两个罗马帝国的领地,请求罗马人的收留。当时的罗马正好缺兵少将,于是将哥特人作为炮灰留在国境内。然而,罗马人肆意地虐待西哥特人,终于引发了他们的反抗。在决定性的阿德里安堡会战中,西哥特的骑兵击溃了罗马军团,从此罗马帝国走向了衰亡之路,日耳曼人像潮水一样涌入罗马的国土。

It may be, O King, that the above
proposals have been wantonly made by your Ambassador on his own
responsibility, or peradventure you yourself are ignorant of our
dynastic regulations and had no intention of transgressing them when you
expressed these wild ideas and hopes…. If, after the receipt of this
explicit decree, you lightly give ear to the representations of your
subordinates and allow your barbarian merchants to proceed to Chêkiang
and Tientsin, with the object of landing and trading there, the
ordinances of my Celestial Empire are strict in the extreme, and the
local officials, both civil and military, are bound reverently to obey
the law of the land. Should your vessels touch the shore, your merchants
will assuredly never be permitted to land or to reside there, but will
be subject to instant expulsion. In that event your barbarian merchants
will have had a long journey for nothing. Do not say that you were not
warned in due time! Tremblingly obey and show no negligence! A special
mandate!

对于罗马帝国来说,远在东方的匈人并非心腹大患。因为,他们社会结构松散,处于分裂状态。虽然他们会掠夺边境,但是对坚固的城市并不能构成威胁。然而,当成长于罗马的匈人国王阿提拉一统匈人各部后,匈人才真正成为罗马的大敌。

From Backhouse, E. and J. O. P. Bland, Annals
and Memoirs of the Court of Peking. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1914. pp.
322-­331.

阿提拉的匈人帝国首先进攻东罗马帝国,并且一路推进到君士坦丁堡城下。由于匈人缺乏攻城武器,无法攻破城墙坚固的君士坦丁堡。于是两者便签订了“和平条约“,东罗马用巨额黄金向匈人购买和平。此后,阿提拉又降服了日耳曼诸族,形成了横跨欧亚的巨大帝国。

本文转自:译介与文化传播返回搜狐,查看更多

公元450年,阿提拉将注意力转向西方,他纠集阿兰、勃艮第、萨克森等属国的士兵,开始对西罗马帝国发动猛攻。阿提拉纠集五十万士兵(显然有水分),一路打到比利时。为了对抗匈人,西罗马帝国也组织了一支将近六十万人的部队。两军在高卢的沙隆展开决战,阿提拉大败亏输,几乎要自杀。在这次进攻后,匈人帝国似乎没有陷入颓势。公元452年,阿提拉率军攻入意大利,兵锋直指罗马。然而匈人军队在波河北岸停了下来,不久便撤回了自己领土。至于阿提拉为何会撤军?这仍是个千古之谜。公元453年,阿提拉在婚礼上暴毙。这位帝王一死,匈人帝国立即分崩离析,恢复到以前分裂的状态。从此以后,匈人就不再是罗马以及日耳曼诸族的威胁,其属下民族也纷纷独立。

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所以说,无论是东罗马帝国还是西罗马帝国,都没有被匈人所灭亡。匈人曾给罗马造成很大麻烦,但持续时间不过五年,和阿提拉统一匈人国度的时间相吻合。况且,罗马人在沙隆这场决定性的会战中,最终击败了阿提拉。而阿提拉的继承者,也在东罗马帝国的外交军事政策下俯首称臣。阿提拉的一个儿子还被东罗马人斩去头颅,被挂在君士坦丁堡竞技场上示众。可以说,罗马与匈人的战争,罗马并没有输,匈人所造成的破坏也十分有限。真正对罗马有威胁的,其实是从事农耕的哥特等日耳曼蛮族,而绝不是匈人。

罗马人没有败给游牧民族,而中原政权倒是先败了。北匈奴虽然西逃,但是他们的同族南匈奴却留在了中原。东汉大乱后,中原人口空虚,鲜卑、羌、氐、羯等胡人纷纷迁入。关中之地,戎狄人口甚至占了一半。西晋末年,中原发生了八王之乱,南匈奴贵族刘渊趁势而起,并于308年称帝。公元313年,南匈奴军队攻破晋朝首都洛阳,并俘虏了晋怀帝。西罗马帝国还在苟延残喘,中原王朝倒是先亡于游牧民族之手,被迫“衣冠南渡”,偏安于淮河以南。

图片 16

中国对于匈人的想象源于民族自卑感

中国之所以对匈人和匈奴人的关系念念不忘,完全在于近代以来,中国对于列强的屈辱史。在西方白种人强势的武力之下,中国人节节败退,产生了一种“白人不可战胜”的挫败感。当中国发现匈人横行欧洲,并把西方人的祖先打得落花流水之后,就产生了一种异样的民族自豪感。所以在潜意识里,一些中国人往往会扭曲历史事实。不假思索地断定匈人即是匈奴人;同时又不问史料,认为罗马是被匈人所消灭。这种种怪像,都是民族自卑感在作祟,是对现实没有信心的表现,所以他们将情感寄托于古代祖先,从而获得这种虚妄的慰藉。

在民族自卑感的作祟下,被北魏击败的柔然人,被唐朝击败突厥人,以及横扫欧亚的蒙古人,都成了部分中国人缓解自己民族自卑感的对象。前者可能与阿瓦尔人有联系,给欧洲人造成很大破坏;而后者曾横行于中东和东南欧,灭亡了曾经强大的东罗马帝国。而蒙古人的成吉思汗,更是成为许多中国人心中“痛打白种人”的黄种英雄。现在我们的国家,与积贫积弱的旧中国,已经不可同日而语。就国力而言,中国已经是世界上屈指可数的大国。然而许多中国人的自信心,并没有随着国力的提升而提升,相反仍抱有旧日的弱国心态,对于富裕、强大的西方仍有自卑感。而这就是“匈人即是匈奴人”这种缺乏历史依据的说法,仍能在中国大行其道的原因。返回搜狐,查看更多

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